Friday, 1 November 2013

Nguyên Liệu Thực Phẩm - Vài Cách Thay Thế Vật Liệu

Ngày nay muốn học nấu ăn làm bánh rất dễ dàng tìm kiếm và học hỏi theo các công thức và video clip chỉ dẫn.   Với sự trợ giúp của nhiều loại máy móc dụng cụ nên càng dễ thành công hơn.  Tuy nhiên đôi khi muốn làm một món gì đó mà lại tìm không ra hay là ở nhà không có sẵn một vài loại vật liệu.   Vậy phải làm sao bây chừ?

Nếu gặp trường hợp như thế, mời cùng đọc tiếp theo nha




Trong bài viết nầy, Tứ Diễm xin mạn phép một số các vị tác giả để được copy & paste vào đây vài tài liệu chỉ dẫn cách hoán đổi vật liệu khá hữu ích.    Tứ Diễm có ghi  source kèm theo ở dưới mỗi tài liệu.

Đầu tiên xin phép giới thiệu một tài liệu khá hữn ích gợi ý cho biết vài phương cách để tạm thay thế một loại vật liệu nào đó.   Tuy nhiên cũng nên lưu ý là khi thay thế có thể sẽ khiến ảnh hưởng tới hương vị hay kết quả của món ăn.   Tốt nhất là nên làm theo đúng công thức chỉ dẫn, trước khi thay đổi chế biến theo ý muốn.




Baking Ingredient Substitution Table


 Sometimes you may find it necessary to substitute one ingredient for another in a recipe. But using a different ingredient may change both the taste and texture of your baking, so it is a good idea before substituting to understand the role that ingredient plays in the recipe.  Use this table as a guideline only.
 
INGREDIENT
AMOUNT
SUBSTITUTION
Almond Meal1 cup (240 ml) (100 grams)To make your own almond meal: place 1 cup (100 grams) (240 ml) sliced (blanched (skins off) or natural (skins on)) almonds with 1 tablespoon (14 grams) granulated white sugar in a blender or food processor and process until finely ground.  Sugar or flour is added to the almonds to prevent clumping as it absorbs the oil exuded from the almonds.  Toasting the almonds first dries them which also helps to prevent clumping.
Almond Paste1 1/3 cups (320 ml) (300 grams)1 3/4 cups (175 grams) (420 ml) ground blanched almonds plus 1 1/2 cups (175 grams) (360 ml) powdered (confectioners or icing) sugar plus 1 large egg white (30 grams) plus 1 teaspoon almond extract plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
Ammonium bicarbonate3/4 teaspoon1 teaspoon baking soda
Arrowroot1 tablespoon (15 grams)1 tablespoon (15 grams) cornstarch, potato starch or rice starch 2 tablespoons (25 grams) all purpose flour
Baking Powder, double-acting (Rule of Thumb: 1 teaspoon for every 1 cup (240 ml) of flour)

High-Altitude Adjustments:
above 3000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon of baking powder in recipe
above 5000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8-1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder  in recipe
above 7000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder in recipe
1 teaspoon1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch 1 1/2 teaspoons single-action baking powder

1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt to replace 1/2 cup (120 ml) non-acidic liquid
Baking Powder, single-acting1 teaspoon2/3 teaspoon double-acting baking powder 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch
Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate) (Rule of Thumb: 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 cup of flour)1/2 teaspoon2 teaspoons double-acting baking powder (must replace the acidic liquid in recipe with non-acidic liquid) 1/2 teaspoon potassium bicarbonate
Bread Crumbs, Dry1 cup (240 ml) (150 grams)1 cup (240 ml) crushed cracker crumbs
1 cup (240 ml) matzo meal
1 cup (240 ml) crushed cornflakes
1 cup (240 ml) ground oats
1 cup (240 ml) crushed potato chips
Buttermilk (Sour Milk) (see below under MILK, Buttermilk)1 cup (240 ml)
Carob Powder1 tablespoon (7 grams)1 tablespoon (7 grams) cocoa powder (either natural or Dutch-processed) 
Chocolate, Bittersweet or Semi-sweet1 ounce (30 grams)1/2 ounce (15 grams) unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon (15 grams) granulated white sugar
Chocolate, Milk 1 ounce (30 grams)1 ounce (30 grams) bittersweet or semi-sweet plus 1 tablespoon (15 grams) granulated white sugar 1 ounce (30 grams) sweet dark chocolate
1 ounce (30 grams) white chocolate
Chocolate, Sweet German1 ounce (30 grams)1 ounce (30 grams) bittersweet or semi-sweet chocolate plus 1/2 tablespoon (7 grams) granulated white sugar 1 ounce (30 grams) milk chocolate
Chocolate, Unsweetened1 ounce (30 grams)3 tablespoons (20 grams) natural cocoa powder (not Dutch-processed) plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter, vegetable oil or shortening
Chocolate, White1 ounce (30 grams)1 ounce (30 grams) milk chocolate 1 ounce (30 grams) sweet dark chocolate
Cocoa Powder, Dutch-Processed3 tablespoons (20 grams)3 tablespoons (20 grams) natural unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda 1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)
3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder
Cocoa Powder, Natural Unsweetened3 tablespoons (20 grams)3 tablespoons (20 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar 1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)
3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder
Coconut, fresh1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) (90 grams) dried flaked coconut 3/4 cup (180 ml) (75 grams) dried shredded coconut
Coconut, dry shredded1 cup (240 ml) (90 grams)1 1/4 (300 ml) cups freshly grated coconut 1 1/4 cup (300 ml) (110 grams) dried flaked coconut
Coconut milk, fresh1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) canned coconut milk (not low fat) 3 tablespoons canned cream of coconut plus enough hot water or milk to equal 1 cup (240 ml)

1/4 cup (60 ml) coconut cream powder plus 1 cup (240 ml) hot water or milk
Coconut cream, fresh1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) canned coconut cream 1 cup (240 ml) top layer of canned coconut milk (not low fat) (do not shake or stir can before skimming)

1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1/2 cup coconut cream powder
Coffee, strong brewed1/4 cup (60 ml)2 tablespoons (10 grams) instant espresso powder dissolved in 3 tablespoons hot water
Cookie Crumbs 1 cup (240 ml)  (100 grams)Can substitute equally among chocolate wafers, vanilla wafers, graham crackers, macaroons, or gingersnaps
Cornmeal, stone ground1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml)  regular milled cornmeal 1 cup (240 ml) corn grits

1 cup (240 ml) polenta

1 cup (240 ml) maize meal
Corn Syrup, Dark1 cup (240 ml)3/4 cup (180 ml) light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) light molasses
Corn Syrup, Light1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) dark corn syrup 1 cup(240 ml)  treacle

1 cup (240 ml) liquid glucose

1 cup (240 ml) honey

1 cup (200 grams) granulated white sugar (increase the liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup (60 ml))
Cornstarch or Corn flour (for thickening)1 tablespoon (15 grams)2 tablespoons (25 grams) all purpose flour 1 tablespoon (15 grams) potato starch or rice starch or flour

1 tablespoon (15 grams) arrowroot

2 tablespoons (25 grams) quick-cooking (instant) tapioca
Cream of Tartar1/2 teaspoon1/2 teaspoon white vinegar or lemon juice
Cream, Clotted1 cup (240 ml) (225 grams)1 cup (240 ml) (225 grams) creme fraiche 1 cup (240 ml) (225 grams) mascarpone cheese
 
1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat), whipped 
Cream, Creme Fraiche1 cup (240 ml) (225 grams)1 cup (240 ml) sour cream 1 cup (240 ml) whipping cream plus 1 tablespoon buttermilk or yogurt

1/2 cup (120 ml) whipping cream plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) sour cream

1 cup (225 grams) mascarpone cheese
Cream, Half & Half (10 - 12% Butterfat)1 cup (240 ml) 7/8 cup (210 ml) whole milk plus 2 tablespoons (25 grams) melted unsalted butter 1/2 cup (120 ml) light cream (5% butterfat) plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) whole milk 

1/2 cup (120 ml) partly skimmed milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) heavy whipping cream (35%)
Cream, Heavy (35% butterfat) (not for whipping)1 cup (240 ml) 2/3 cup (160 ml) whole milk plus 1/3 cup (75 grams) melted unsalted butter
Cream, Light or Coffee Cream (18% Butterfat)1 cup (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) half & half cream (12% butterfat) 7/8 cup (210 ml) whole milk plus 3 tablespoons (35 grams) melted butter

1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated milk or heavy cream plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) milk
Cream, Light Whipping (30% Butterfat) (not for whipping)1 cup (240 ml) 3/4 cup (180 ml) whole milk plus 1/4 cup (57 grams) melted unsalted butter 1 cup (240 ml) half & half cream (12% butterfat)
Cream, Sour1 cup (225 grams) (8 ounces) (240 ml) 1 cup (240 ml) (225 grams) plain yogurt 3/4 cup (180 ml) sour milk, buttermilk or plain yogurt + 1/3 cup (75 grams) melted butter

1 cup (225 grams) (240 ml) creme fraiche


1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough whole milk to fill 1 cup (240 ml) (let stand 5-10 minutes)
Currants1 cup (240 ml) (120 grams)1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) raisins 1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) chopped dates

1 cup (120 grams) (240 ml) other dried fruit (cranberries, cherries, blueberries)
Eggs, whole1 large (about 2 ounces) In Shell (57 grams)
Without Shell (50 grams)
2 large egg yolks (36 grams) plus 1 tablespoon water (in baking) 2 large egg yolks (36 grams) (for custards, sauces, puddings and mousses)

3 1/2 tablespoons frozen whole egg, thawed

3 1/2 tablespoons egg substitute

2 1/2 tablespoons powdered whole egg plus 2 1/2 tablespoons water
Eggs, whites1 large egg white (30 grams)2 tablespoons frozen egg whites, thawed 1 tablespoon powdered egg white plus 2 tablespoons water
Eggs, yolks2 large yolks (36 grams)1 large whole egg (In Shell 57 grams) (Without Shell 50 grams)
Eggs, yolks1 large yolk (18 grams)2 tablespoons powdered egg yolk plus 2 teaspoons water 3 1/2 teaspoons frozen egg yolks, thawed
Extract, pure Vanilla1 teaspoon1/2 of vanilla bean 1/2 - 1 teaspoon other extract (almond, orange, lemon, etc.)
Other Extracts (almond, lemon, orange, peppermint, etc.) 1 teaspoon1 teaspoon of other extract (vanilla, orange, lemon, etc.) 1 to 2 drops of oil of same flavor
Fats, Salted Butter1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) unsalted butter plus 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) margarine

1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) solid vegetable shortening or lard
Fats, Unsalted Butter1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) salted butter (decrease the salt in recipe by 1/4 teaspoon) 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) margarine

1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) solid vegetable shortening or lard 
Fats, Lard1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) solid vegetable shortening 1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter
Fats, Margarine1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) salted or unsalted butter  
1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) solid vegetable shortening
Fats, Solid Vegetable Shortening1/2 cup (120 ml) (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) salted or unsalted butter

1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) lard

1/2 cup (113 grams) (120 ml) margarine
Flour, All Purpose 1 cup (240 ml) (130 grams)1 cup (110 grams) (240 ml) plus 2  tablespoons (20 grams) sifted cake flour 1 cup (130 grams) (240 ml) self-rising flour (omit baking powder and salt from recipe)

7/8 cup (130 grams) rice flour (starch) (do not replace all of the flour with the rice flour)

1/2 cup (60 grams) (120 ml) white cake flour plus 1/2 cup (70 grams) (120 ml) whole wheat flour
FLOUR, Bread1 cup (240 ml) (160 grams)1 cup (130 grams) (240 ml) all purpose flour
FLOUR, Cake1 cup (240 ml) (120 grams)3/4 cup (100 grams) (180 ml) all purpose flour plus 2 tablespoons (20 grams) cornstarch (corn flour) (packed)
FLOUR, Pastry2 cups (480 ml) (270 grams)1 1/3 cup (175 grams) (320 ml)  all purpose flour plus 2/3 cup (80 grams) (160 ml) cake flour
FLOUR, Rice1 cup (240 ml) (150 grams)Equal amounts of cake or pastry flour
FLOUR, Self-Rising1 cup (240 ml) (130 grams)1 cup (130 grams) (240 ml) similar grade (all purpose) flour plus  1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
FLOUR, Whole Wheat1 cup (240 ml) (140 grams)7/8 cup (120 grams)  all purpose flour plus 2 tablespoon (6 grams) wheat germ 1 cup (240 ml) graham flour


Sưu Tầm - Source: http://www.joyofbaking.com/IngredientSubstitution.html


============ 

Với người kiêng ăn gluten đôi khi cảm thấy hơi bị bó buộc vì khi tìm không ra công thức chỉ dẫn món thích ăn dùng vật liệu không chứa gluten.  Bên dưới là một tài liệu do Tứ Diễm sưu tầm.   Trong tài liệu nầy có chỉ dẫn vài cách dùng vật liệu không chứa gluten để thay thế cho vật liệu chứa gluten dùng trong công thức.  Hy vọng sẽ giúp ích phần nào.

Substituting Gluten

Gluten a protein found in wheat flour, is what gives structure to baked goods. It gives breads, muffins, and cakes their soft spongy texture. To replace gluten, you'll need to use other thickeners like xanthan gum or guar gum in your baking.

For each cup of gluten-free flour mix, add at least 1 teaspoon of gluten substitute.
 

Xanthum Gum This comes from the dried cell coat of a microorganism called Zanthomonas campestris. You can purchase it in health food stores and some supermarkets.
 

Guar GumThis powder comes from the seed of the plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. It is an excellent gluten substitute and it is available in health food stores and some supermarkets.
 

Pre-Gel Starch 
 This gluten substitute helps keep baked goods from being too crumbly. This, too, can be purchased at most health food stores.


Homemade Mixes

Start with recipes that use relatively small amounts of wheat flour like brownies or pancakes. Gluten-free versions taste almost the same as their wheat-based cousins. These two gluten-free flour mixtures can be substituted for wheat flour cup-for-cup:
  • Gluten-Free Flour Mix I1/4 cup soy flour
    1/4 cup tapioca flour
    1/2 cup brown rice flour
  • Gluten-Free Flour Mix II6 cups white rice flour
    2 cups potato starch
    1 cup tapioca flour

These mixes can be doubled or tripled. You can also purchase gluten-free baking mixes at health food stores and some supermarkets.

Sưu Tầm -  Source: http://allrecipes.com/Recipes/Healthy-Cooking/Gluten-Free


============ 


Trong tài liệu bên dưới có giới thiệu một vài loại vật liệu không có chứa "gluten", còn được gọi chung là "Gluten-Free Ingredients".    Tứ Diễm thấy cũng khá hữu ích nên mạn phép copy & paste vào đây xem như tài liệu tham khảo khi cần.

Gluten-Free Ingredients

Potato Starch Flour This is a gluten-free thickening agent that is perfect for cream-based soups and sauces. Mix it a little with water first, then substitute potato starch flour for flour in your recipe, but use half the amount called for. It can be purchased in a health food store.

Tapioca Flour This is a light, white, very smooth flour that comes from the cassava root. It gives baked goods a nice chewy texture. Try it in white bread or French bread recipes. It is also easily combined with cornstarch and soy flour.

Soy Flour This nutty-tasting flour has a high protein and fat content. It's best when used in combination with other flours and for baking brownies, or any baked goods with nuts or fruit, which will mask any "beany" flavor.

Cornstarch A refined starch that comes from corn, it's mostly used as a thickening agent for puddings, fruit sauces, and Asian cooking. It is also used in combination with other flours for baking.

Corn Flour This flour is milled from corn and can be blended with cornmeal to make cornbread or muffins. It is excellent for waffles or pancakes.

Cornmeal Cornmeal can be ground from either yellow or white corn. This is often combined with flours for baking. It imparts a strong corn flavor that is delicious in pancakes, waffles, or muffins.

White Rice Flour This is an excellent basic flour for gluten-free baking. It is milled from polished white rice. Because it has such a bland flavor, it is perfect for baking, as it doesn't impart any flavors. It works well with other flours. White rice flour is available in most health food stores, and also in Asian markets. Look for types called fine-textured white rice flour.

Brown Rice Flour Made from unpolished brown rice, brown rice flour retains the nutritional value of the rice bran. Use it in breads, muffins, and cookies.

Kamut and Spelt Flours These are ancient forms of wheat. While they aren't appropriate for gluten-free diets, they can be often be tolerated by people with gluten sensitivities.

Sưu Tầm - Source: http://allrecipes.com/howto/using-alternative-flours/



============ 

Tứ Diễm sẽ viết thêm sau khi nào có thời gian hay khi tìm thêm được tài liệu hữu ích

Mời xem thêm một số bài viết khác:

0 comments:

Post a comment

 
;